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some of the simple questions whose answers i dont know

Question asked by samaira in #Coffee Room on Aug 13, 2009
samaira
samaira 路 Aug 13, 2009
Rank D1 - MASTER
1.what is the difference between spywares,malwares and virus?
2.how to get rid of spywares??
3.what is the first process that happens in a computer when it is turned on??
4.On what basis are the partitions made(i mean different drives) and how we can give 20GB size to each drive if we say i have a system of 2GB hard disk??
5.what is the application of parity checker and how it works??
6.why do we have to study hexadecimal,excess-3 and gray codes??what's their application or their use in computer system??
7.what do u mean by ports??what is the difference between serial port and parallel port??
8.what is the difference between buffer and cache memory??y both of them are needed??
9.In our phone chords(earphone) y one end is long and other short??
10.How does Fm in our mobile gets activated only if earphone is attached?
😕 Posted in: #Coffee Room
itchap
itchap 路 Aug 13, 2009
Rank C1 - EXPERT
Answer for your Ist question.......

Adware: Adwares are software applications that are supported by advertisements (Advertising Software). It automatically display advertisement when the software is running. It is one of the way a programmer can offer his application at a reduce cost or even for free. Most of the time, a license can be bought to remove the advertisement permanently.

Spyware: Spywares are a progression from adwares. In order to provide the user of adwares with more targeted advertisements, various forms of statistics and information on user's activity on the system is tracked and sent to advertising companies. Sometimes these are done under the hood without user's knowledge and consent. Like spying on your habits and activities on your computer. Thus the term spying software.

Malware: Malware are malicious software that affects the normal functionality of your system. Sometimes, annoying pop up will appear out of no where to direct you to some sales sites. Sometimes emails spams will automatically be sent from your system. Adware and spyware progress to a malicious state if it start to affect the use of your system actively instead of just showing you passive advertisement.

Virus:A virus is a short program code which can cause actual harm or damage to your PC. It can even cause problems with your computer hardware.

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itchap
itchap 路 Aug 13, 2009
Rank C1 - EXPERT
Answer for IInd question

To deal with the scourge of spyware, you need to install an anti-spyware tool.There are a number of choices, ranging from free to fairly expensive, so let me run down a couple that I feel are the best options.

First off, the single most popular solution to avoiding spyware is LavaSoft's Ad-Aware. This is a great little program that you install and then it promptly scares the daylights out of you by reporting all this spyware that's probably already running on your computer without you knowing. Zap everything, then you'll be able to run your Windows system with just a bit more safety and comfort.


A second strong solution is from a German developer, called Spybot Search & Destroy, and it's very highly rated by publications like PC World in this category. To be candid, though, I do know of people who have had problems with this program, especially when they try to switch to another app and delete this one. Buyer beware.

Finally, my favorite choice, and the program that I've installed on the PCs of various family members, is Webroot's Spy Sweeper, a program that costs a few dollars but has an excellent reputation in the industry and frequently wins computer magazine awards as best anti-spyware application on the market. Also nice is that the company offers a free spyware scan right on their Web site, if you're not sure whether you've any spyware installed on your computer or not.

When you're deciding what anti-spyware to install, remember that one critical factor is how trustworthy the company is. It'd be terrible to install an anti-spyware program just to find out that it's actually sponsored, secretly, by a spyware group and that it flags and deletes all spyware except from that group. Not too likely, but I would certainly counsel you choose from one of the solutions in this space, not test out something from a company you've never heard of before.

Once you have one of these programs installed, you should be able to both eliminate the adware that appears to have infected your computer and avoid a reinfection in the future.

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itchap
itchap 路 Aug 13, 2009
Rank C1 - EXPERT
Answer For IIIrd question

The first thing a computer has to do when it is turned on is start up a special program called an operating system. The operating system's job is to help other computer programs to work by handling the messy details of controlling the computer's hardware.

The process of bringing up the operating system is called booting (originally this was bootstrapping and alluded to the process of pulling yourself up "by your bootstraps"). Your computer knows how to boot because instructions for booting are built into one of its chips, the BIOS (or Basic Input/Output System) chip.

The BIOS chip tells it to look in a fixed place, usually on the lowest-numbered hard disk (the boot disk) for a special program called a boot loader (under Linux the boot loader is called Grub or LILO). The boot loader is pulled into memory and started. The boot loader's job is to start the real operating system.

The loader does this by looking for a kernel, loading it into memory, and starting it. When you boot Linux and see "LILO" on the screen followed by a bunch of dots, it is loading the kernel. (Each dot means it has loaded another disk block of kernel code.)


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itchap
itchap 路 Aug 13, 2009
Rank C1 - EXPERT
Answer for IV question

I think you may be wondering why you would even need to make multiple partitions instead of just making one. Though there are quite a few reasons, we will touch on some of the more important ones below:

Multiple Filesystems - When you create a partition, you then need to format it before it can be used. When formatting a partition you tell the operating system what filesystem you would like that partition to be formatted in. Once you format a partition, and therefore assign the type of filesystem you want to use with it, you can not change that filesystem without formatting the partition again and losing all the data contained on it. If you require different filesystems on your computer, whether it be for security or for a specific application, you can then make multiple partition and assign one type of filesystem to one of the partitions and another to one of the other partitions.

Partition Size - On older operating systems the maximum size of a partition was limited. Therefore if you had more storage space on a hard drive than was usable in a single partition, you would need to create other partitions to utilize this unused space.

Multiple Operating Systems - Some operating systems use filesystems that are not compatible with other operating systems. If you want to use two operating systems on the same computer that are not compatible in this way, you could then make two partitions, one for each operating system. Then a boot loader could be used to switch between them when you start your computer.

Wasted disk Space - When a filesystems store data in a partition, the larger the partition, the greater the chance of wasted space. By having multiple partitions of smaller size, you reduce the amount of waste that filesystems may create.

Seperate system files from users files - Some components of an operating system require storage space to operate. For example, in Windows if you have no hard drive space available on the drive that Windows is installed on, you will not be able to print. By creating a partition solely devoted to the operating system and then another partition dedicated to your own data and programs, there is less of a chance of you using up the space on the operating system partition with your data, and thus not causing problems.


And if you want to do partitions using XP then just insert your XP disk in CD -ROM and follow the instructions on the screen.

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Aashish Joshi
Aashish Joshi 路 Aug 14, 2009
Rank B1 - LEADER
Correct me if i'm wrong, but the first process that happens immediately after you boot your computer is POST. Power On Self Test, a check performed by the BIOS. After this you hear a single beep if everything is fine, or beeps if there are problems. Only after you get an OK from the BIOS, the OS is loaded onto the memory..
Aashish Joshi
Aashish Joshi 路 Aug 14, 2009
Rank B1 - LEADER
Ans 10)

I think the ear phones act as antenna for the radio, that is why you need to plug them in to play it. Although I believe some mobile phones do come with inbuilt radio antenna.
samaira
samaira 路 Aug 14, 2009
Rank D1 - MASTER
still i didnt got the answers for the remaining questions.I m waiting馃槨
samaira
samaira 路 Aug 14, 2009
Rank D1 - MASTER
thanks for the answers given so far馃榾
Rohan_sK
Rohan_sK 路 Aug 14, 2009
Rank C2 - EXPERT
Both Cache and Buffer are reserve memories used by the computer but both are different in terms of location and use.

Here are the differences in their basic working .


CACHE MEMORY:

The Cache Memory is a memory that is inbuilt in the computers CPU. It is a very fast operating memory as compared to the RAM. There might be a seperately designed cache memory in the form of a chip located just next to the CPU in close proximity. The inbuilt cache is called the level 1 cache and the cache on a seperate chip is called Level 2 cache.

The Cache is used by the CPU to actually store vital information and instructions necessary to run the programs that are currently processed or handelled by the CPU. The cache stores the instruction that are repeatedly required when more than one program is being run on the machine, so that it does not have to access the RAM continously every now and then for the required information.

This is because when the RAM is accessed it is done through the system buses and the rate of data transfer is much slower through these system buses than that of he rate of transfer in the Cache memory. Thus using cache which has a much faster rate of data transfer is used by the CPU for faster processing of multiple programs and tasks and thus improving the overall system performance.

Also, a slower CPU with a larger cache performs better than a faster CPU with a smaller cache for obvious reasons stated above.



BUFFER MEMORY :

Buffer Memory is a temporary area or patch of memory created in the RAM. It is used to store some data required for the continous or uninterrupted running of a certain program or a hardware device on the system.

Unlike the cache, the buffer memory is created on the RAM and not in the CPU or a seperate chip. It is not created in the hard drive ( like page file) because of the inherent slower transfer rate from the hard disk.

Buffers are created because some hardwares like the Printer needs a continous data transfer without any interruption. Thus some Printers have their own inbuilt RAM or Buffer similar to graphic cards. Thus when a printing command is given the computer transfers the required data on to the printers Buffer from where the printing job os done byt he printer independent of the system RAM. This frees the systemm RAM for other tasks to be performed and so frees up space for the system.

This is the basic working and location of both the memory systems and the hope it does answer the question atleast primarily.
Sahithi Pallavi
Sahithi Pallavi 路 Aug 15, 2009
Rank A2 - PRO
Nice questions....! and answers too..!




WINNERS DONT DO DIFFERENT THINGS...THEY DO THINGS DIFFERENTLY....
samaira
samaira 路 Aug 15, 2009
Rank D1 - MASTER
the questions are nice but it would have been nicer if i would have known the answers of all of them
Kaustubh Katdare
Kaustubh Katdare 路 Aug 16, 2009
Rank A1 - PRO
You should ask each question in different threads to get response to each one of them.
Saandeep Sreerambatla
Saandeep Sreerambatla 路 Aug 16, 2009
Rank A2 - PRO
9 .The answer based on my experience is one chord smaller and the microphone attached , the longer one is to place it around the neck to the next ear !!!

@itchap Excellent answers good!!
Rajni Jain
Rajni Jain 路 Aug 16, 2009
Rank B1 - LEADER
Nice Information...I was well conversant of these IT jargons, but was never knew things in details.

Thanks,
-CG
itchap
itchap 路 Aug 18, 2009
Rank C1 - EXPERT
5.what is the application of parity checker and how it works??

Parity checking is a rudimentary method of detecting simple, single-bit errors in a memory system.

Every byte of data that is stored in the system memory contains 8 bits of real data, each one a zero or a one. It is possible to count up the number of zeros or ones in a byte. For example, the byte 10110011 has 3 zeros and 5 ones. The byte 00100100 has 6 zeros and 2 ones. As you can see, some bytes will have an even number of ones, and some will have an odd number.

When parity checking is enabled, each time a byte is written to memory, a logic circuit called a parity generator/checker examines the byte and determines whether the data byte had an even or an odd number of ones. If it had an even number of ones, the ninth (parity) bit is set to a one, otherwise it is set to a zero. The result is that no matter how many ones there were in the original eight data bits, there are an odd number of ones when you look at all nine bits together. This is called odd parity. (It is also possible to have even parity, where the generator makes the sum always come out even, but the standard in PC memory is odd parity). This table shows some examples of how this works:

[鈥婭MG]

As you can see, when all nine bits are taken together, there are always an odd number of ones. When the data is read back from memory, the parity circuit this time acts as a checker. It reads back all nine bits and determines again if there are an odd or an even number of ones. If there are an even number of ones, there must have been an error in one of the bits, because when it stored the byte the circuit set the parity bit so that there would always be an odd number of ones. This is how parity memory is used to detect errors--the system knows one bit is wrong, although it doesn't know which one it is. When a parity error is detected, the parity circuit generates what is called a "non-maskable interrupt" or "NMI", which is usually used to instruct the processor to immediately halt. This is done to ensure that the incorrect memory does not end up corrupting anything.

What happens if there is an error in two of the bits? Let's say we have a data byte of 00100100 and this is stored as "00100100 1" including the parity bit. Now let's say this is read back as "01100000 1". Here we have two bits that have flipped, one of them from 1 to 0 and the other from 0 to 1. But the number of ones is still odd! As you can see, parity does not protect against double-bit errors. Fortunately, if the odds of a single-bit memory error are like those of being struck by lightning, the odds of a double-bit error are comparable to those of being struck by lightning twice at the same time. :^)


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samaira
samaira 路 Aug 18, 2009
Rank D1 - MASTER
well that was a useful information.Thanks a lot馃榿
itchap
itchap 路 Aug 19, 2009
Rank C1 - EXPERT
samaira
well that was a useful information.Thanks a lot馃榿
Thanks samaira....馃榿

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