sristi
sristi
Branch Unspecified
14 Aug 2015

What are subnets used in TCP/IP?

can anyone explain what are subnets as used in tcp/ip?
integratdbrains

integratdbrains

Branch Unspecified
12 years ago
REcalling

Hi sristi me being an electronics engineer and given up books (cuz I was not curious enough to find out how the software really went hand in hand with hardware!) won't be able to help much but i think 'Computer Networks' by Tenenbaumb(check out the spelling) gives all the necessary information. If still you have query i think the computers and IT professionals on CE will throw some light on it😎 !
12 years ago
sristi
can anyone explain what are subnets as used in tcp/ip?
Hi,



TCP and IP were developed by a Department of Defense (DOD) research project to connect a number different networks designed by different vendors into a network of networks (the "Internet"). It was initially successful because it delivered a few basic services that everyone needs (file transfer, electronic mail, remote logon) across a very large number of client and server systems. Several computers in a small department can use TCP/IP (along with other protocols) on a single LAN. The IP component provides routing from the department to the enterprise network, then to regional networks, and finally to the global Internet. On the battlefield a communications network will sustain damage, so the DOD designed TCP/IP to be robust and automatically recover from any node or phone line failure. This design allows the construction of very large networks with less central management. However, because of the automatic recovery, network problems can go undiagnosed and uncorrected for long periods of time.
As with all other communications protocol, TCP/IP is composed of layers:
  • IP - is responsible for moving packet of data from node to node. IP forwards each packet based on a four byte destination address (the IP number). The Internet authorities assign ranges of numbers to different organizations. The organizations assign groups of their numbers to departments. IP operates on gateway machines that move data from department to organization to region and then around the world.
  • TCP - is responsible for verifying the correct delivery of data from client to server. Data can be lost in the intermediate network. TCP adds support to detect errors or lost data and to trigger retransmission until the data is correctly and completely received.
  • Sockets - is a name given to the package of subroutines that provide access to TCP/IP on most systems.
I hope this matter will give you initial idea about TCP\IP..

Enjoy,
--crazy
pad

pad

Branch Unspecified
12 years ago
last answer is quite long and a little of the track... so i think i can help here a bit...
you can safely assume all the hosts that use same default gateway are on same subnet.
so the explaination..
To make routing decisions easier we need a Hierarchical addressing scheme where every host is connected to a gateway and this gateway links all the hosts connected to it with rest of the world.

We have a IPv4 address of 4 octets (yes one octet equal to a byte). Initial design was to have different IP address classes (A,B,C,D and E) but soon there was address allotment problem so CIDR came in place.
Effectively Classless and Classful addresses are no different... both require a gateway on each host.

each packet destined for a host on same subnet never leaves the shared broadcast media (at least in ideal network) and no router is required.

post a message if further details required...
12 years ago
pad
last answer is quite long and a little of the track... so i think i can help here a bit...
Sir, you won't expect everyone to understand these tecchii... things. As everyone is not CS guy. So I explained in that way.

No offense means. BTW good explanation.

--Crazy
vibhor_one

vibhor_one

Branch Unspecified
12 years ago
pad
last answer is quite long and a little of the track... so i think i can help here a bit...
you can safely assume all the hosts that use same default gateway are on same subnet.
so the explaination..
To make routing decisions easier we need a Hierarchical addressing scheme where every host is connected to a gateway and this gateway links all the hosts connected to it with rest of the world.

We have a IPv4 address of 4 octets (yes one octet equal to a byte). Initial design was to have different IP address classes (A,B,C,D and E) but soon there was address allotment problem so CIDR came in place.
Effectively Classless and Classful addresses are no different... both require a gateway on each host.

each packet destined for a host on same subnet never leaves the shared broadcast media (at least in ideal network) and no router is required.

post a message if further details required...
Sir,

I am studying engineering from Electronics & Electrical Engg. so therefore I am not very familier with CS but want to know more about the topic.

Regards

vibhor_one
pad

pad

Branch Unspecified
12 years ago
vibhor_one
Sir,

I am studying engineering from Electronics & Electrical Engg. so therefore I am not very familier with CS but want to know more about the topic.

Regards

vibhor_one
Hi vibhor,

no need to call sir.. i'm not an editor of a newspaper.. and we all are equal on this forum..

what ever you want to know please elaborate. i'll help you as much as possible.
12 years ago
pad
Hi vibhor,

no need to call sir.. i'm not an editor of a newspaper.. and we all are equal on this forum..

what ever you want to know please elaborate. i'll help you as much as possible.
I agree to that too. I'm yet to be knighted by the queen of England . I'll announce if she ever does 😁.

We are all 'Engineers' only and therefore 'equal'.

-The Big K-
p.s: Sorry for an off-topic comment. Just wanted to make a point.
sristi

sristi

Branch Unspecified
12 years ago
pad
last answer is quite long and a little of the track... so i think i can help here a bit...
you can safely assume all the hosts that use same default gateway are on same subnet.
so the explaination..
To make routing decisions easier we need a Hierarchical addressing scheme where every host is connected to a gateway and this gateway links all the hosts connected to it with rest of the world.

We have a IPv4 address of 4 octets (yes one octet equal to a byte). Initial design was to have different IP address classes (A,B,C,D and E) but soon there was address allotment problem so CIDR came in place.
Effectively Classless and Classful addresses are no different... both require a gateway on each host.

each packet destined for a host on same subnet never leaves the shared broadcast media (at least in ideal network) and no router is required.

.
thanks pad,crazyboy for the explanation
at presnt im reading a book related to networking ill post message if i'll get any doubt.
xero

xero

Branch Unspecified
12 years ago
Well i dont expect CEians to say "since i am of XX stream i won't be able to reply to XX". If u don't, plz don't state it, find it out... its fun 😀

Now coming to subnets..

its pretty simple... subnets as the name suggests parting out a network, well i won't be going indepth on this, because it has pretty good explanatory concepts to be dealt with. If you required can post me any time.

For now..

Subnetting becomes helpful when we have to group a set of nodes which are presentable with a common IP prefix and have different set of classes which represent the whole subnetting structure.
Jatin Kumar

Jatin Kumar

Branch Unspecified
3 years ago
best video on the internet explaining TCP/ip and subnet masking





A must watch ,you will not be able to understand subnet directly

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