From the Archives
Archived discussions on CrazyEngineers

@CIVILPRINCESS • 03 Feb, 2010
Buildings are the Worst Killers than the Earthquake. Earthquakes don’t kill; badly built houses do. Neglecting earthquake hazards in the design of buildings will not be fair designing.

I got to present a paper on the seismic design of structures.and I thought it would be nice to share it with all CEans.but i am not master at this and am trying to post the little that i know. so I will update this thread on the seismic design of structures.

The most extensively discussed among the seismic resistant construction are the new methods like rubber bearings, base insulation, seismic dampers, and energy dissipation devices. In certain hilly areas there were many traditional methods of construction which could allow the buildings to withstand the high intensities of earthquakes for more than 500 years.

in this thread I shall brief you all about the various modern methods of seismic design and shall give you a glimpse into the traditional methodologies that were used to protect the houses from these earthquakes.

P.S: updates can be from your side too 😁
@CIVILPRINCESS • 04 Feb, 2010 When we speak of seismic design of structures, we mostly speak of the modern methods.
Two basic technologies are used to protect buildings from damaging earthquake effects. These are Base Isolation Devices and Seismic Dampers.

let us have a detailed idea about the base isolators first.

BASE ISOLATION:
The idea behind base isolation is to detach (isolate) the building from the ground in such a way that earthquake motions are not transmitted up through the building or at least greatly reduced. A base isolated structure is supported by a series of bearing pads, which are placed between the buildings and building foundation. The bearing is very stiff and strong in the vertical direction, but flexible in the horizontal direction.

[​IMG]

the closer look at the rubber bearings will be as follows:


[​IMG]

A lead–rubber bearing is made from layers of rubber sandwiched together with layers of steel. In the middle of the bearing is a solid lead "plug." On top and bottom, the bearing is fitted with steel plates which are used to attach the bearing to the building and foundation. The bearing is very stiff and strong in the vertical direction, but flexible in the horizontal direction.

in the next post i will brief you about the spherical isolating system.
@NKuzmick • 18 Aug, 2010 This is a great post on the usefulness of rubber bearings in building safety design - I thought I'd give it a bump.

I also recently came across some good literature about this topic courtesy of Information Center for Natural Rubber

In issue 13 of their natuurrubber publication from 1999 they discuss the uses of natural rubber in building design in depth - it's a pretty informative article

To find the article online go to the newsletter tab and click on #13 - that will load the PDF of the newsletter.

Cheers

Nick Kuzmick
Timco Rubber Products
https://www.timcorubber.com
Nick Kuzmick (TimcoRubber) on Twitter
@theconstructor • 16 Sep, 2010 I have got something to share. visit Earthquake | The Constructor for earthquake related design guide. there is nothing complicated there, just small things that we should keep in mind while designing a building so that it does not collapse during earthquake..

I hope you will find it useful.
@CIVILPRINCESS • 17 Sep, 2010 Spherical Sliding Isolation Systems

Spherical Sliding Isolation Systems are another type of base isolation. The building is supported by bearing pads that have a curved surface and low friction.
During an earthquake, the building is free to slide on the bearings. Since the bearings have a curved surface, the building slides both horizontally and vertically. The force needed to move the building upwards limits the horizontal or lateral forces which would otherwise cause building deformations. Also, by adjusting the radius of the bearing's curved surface, this property can be used to design bearings that also lengthen the building's period of vibration.

the following is a picture of spherical isolating structure :

[​IMG]
@gohm • 17 Sep, 2010 What are the pros & cons of the two systems discussed so far and what applications are they best suited for in building design?
@CIVILPRINCESS • 18 Sep, 2010 though both these satisfy the need, people mostly use only lead rubber bearing in practical application since it is cheap and also easily fixed. but the only disadvantage of lead rubber bearings is that the middle layer of lead gets damaged after some quakes. so it will require maintenance.
@maria flor • 24 Dec, 2010 I'm a 3rd yr. civil engineering student. I just want to ask what is the difference between a roller or hinge and how can we create a roller or hinge in actual.
@CIVILPRINCESS • 17 Mar, 2011 hinge is actually a type of connection in the beams and structures that restrict movement right? the rollers support but they allow movement. that the difference i guess. 😀
@maria flor • 17 Mar, 2011 Do rollers really gives freedom to columns and beams to expand and contract during hot or cold temperature???
@maria flor • 17 Mar, 2011 What is this energy dissipation devices???
@Nachko • 14 May, 2012 • 2 likes Only hinges here. I have made these photos in Budapest, Amsterdam and Berlin.
And yes, rollers really allow expansion and contraction 😀
IMG_1857IMG_1854IMG_1853IMG_1852IMG_1567IMG_1572IMG_0217IMG_0141

Oops! On the fifth photo from the top you can see a kind of a roller - a thick lead plate that allows side movement - not too big, but enough to be considered a "roller" type. The lead plates are old fashion, now polymers or real rollers are used.
@Prerna Singh • 03 Jun, 2012 • 3 likes the traditional methods discussed include one of the structure called the KOTI BANAL in uttarakhand.these structures are standing for the past 500 years n are made using timber n stone rubble masonry.....Representatives of Koti Banal structures being located close to each other.Representatives of Koti Banal structures being located close to each other.
@Kaustubh Katdare • 03 Jun, 2012 Interesting - what makes these houses so strong?

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