CrazyEngineers Archive

Old, but evergreen and popular discussions on CrazyEngineers, presented to you in read-only mode.

@Ankita Katdare • 06 Nov, 2010

Following are the repeatedly asked Questions:

Explain the different computer network functions.

What are the differences between packet switching and circuit switching?

Explain the OSI reference model with diagram.

Compare the OSI and TCP/IP models. Explain the difference between them.

Write a short note on

1)HTTP

2) SMTP

3) FTP

What are the advantages of digital communication over analog communication.

Explain the differences between block oriented and stream oriented information.

Explain the TCP/IP reference model with diagram.

What is a line coding? What are advantages?

Line code the bit stream 110101 using six different methods.

Suppose it is desired to transmit at a rate of 64Kbps over 3KHz telephone channel. What is the minimum SNR in dB?

Explain the different types of characterization of communication channels.

Write a short note on

i) Analog repeater

ii) Attenuation

iii) Shannon Channel Capacity.

Explain the PSK, ASK, FSK modulation and demodulation wave forms.

Briefly explain the coaxial cable , optical fiber, twisted pair and its applications.

Generate CRC code for the data word 110101010 using the divisor 10101.

Explain time space time switches.

Explain FDM, TDM and QAM with examples.

What is a draw back of Go Back-n protocol? How it is overcome in the selective repeat protocol.

Drive the efficiency of stop and wait protocol.

Give the HDLC frame format and explain the bit stuffing scheme is used. Also give the control field format of the different types of frames used.

What is multiplexing ? Explain TDM. How is the frequency of a multiplexer determined.

What is SONET? Explain the SONET layer and the frame structure.

Explain the different computer network functions.

What are the differences between packet switching and circuit switching?

Explain the OSI reference model with diagram.

Compare the OSI and TCP/IP models. Explain the difference between them.

Write a short note on

1)HTTP

2) SMTP

3) FTP

What are the advantages of digital communication over analog communication.

Explain the differences between block oriented and stream oriented information.

Explain the TCP/IP reference model with diagram.

What is a line coding? What are advantages?

Line code the bit stream 110101 using six different methods.

Suppose it is desired to transmit at a rate of 64Kbps over 3KHz telephone channel. What is the minimum SNR in dB?

Explain the different types of characterization of communication channels.

Write a short note on

i) Analog repeater

ii) Attenuation

iii) Shannon Channel Capacity.

Explain the PSK, ASK, FSK modulation and demodulation wave forms.

Briefly explain the coaxial cable , optical fiber, twisted pair and its applications.

Generate CRC code for the data word 110101010 using the divisor 10101.

Explain time space time switches.

Explain FDM, TDM and QAM with examples.

What is a draw back of Go Back-n protocol? How it is overcome in the selective repeat protocol.

Drive the efficiency of stop and wait protocol.

Give the HDLC frame format and explain the bit stuffing scheme is used. Also give the control field format of the different types of frames used.

What is multiplexing ? Explain TDM. How is the frequency of a multiplexer determined.

What is SONET? Explain the SONET layer and the frame structure.

@Ankita Katdare • 06 Nov, 2010
More Questions: Unit Wise

Define the term Signals.

Define the term Systems.

Define the term Signal Space.

Define Bandpass signals and system.

Define Baseband signal &system.

Give the basic difference between Analog and Digital communication.

State Sampling Theorem.

What is impulse sampling, Natural sampling

Define Pulse code Modulation.

In what way PCM is different from other Modulation?

What is the meaning of Quantization?

Define uniform Quantization

Define nonuniform Quantization.

What is meant by Quantizing Noise?

How Delta modulation is different from PCM?

Which two noises are occurred in Delta modulation?

What is meant by coherent?

What is meant by non coherent?

Write the advantages and disadvantages of a digital communication system.

Explain the difference between baseband transmission and bandpass transmission.

Draw and explain the block diagram of Delta modulation

What are the different types of quantizer?

Explain the concept of companding.

Explain coherent binary PSK with the help of transmitter & receiver.

Explain coherent binary FSK with the help of transmitter & receiver.

Derive the expression for probability of error in coherent FSK

Explain the properties of matched filter.

Explain the concept of matched filter.

Derive the expression for probability of error in QPSK

Draw the signal space diagram for QPSK and find Euclidean distance.

Derive the expression for probability of error in coherent BPSK

Explain the difference between correlator and matched filter.

Draw the block diagram of DPSK system. Explain the working by means of suitable diagram

Write short note on QPSK.

Explain the PCM system.

Explain concept of Quantizing in PCM.

Explain concept of multiplexing in PCM.

Explain concept of repeaters in PCM.

Explain use of TDM in PCM

Give the expression for S to quantization noise ratio for PCM system. Hence prove that (S/N)dB =(4.8+6v)dB

Explain coherent MSK with the help of transmitter & receiver.

Derive the expression for probability of error in coherent MSK.

Draw the signal space diagram for MSK

Draw the waveforms related to MSK.

Derive the expression for probability of error in coherent QPSK

Define the Information Theory.

Give the name of different types of Compact code.

Give the formula for entropy?

Explain discrete communication channel and its expression for information content?

Explain continues communication channel and its expression for information content.?

What is p (xi / yj)?

How will you write mutual information exchange?

Write expression for discrete channel capacity?

The formula for information measure is ---?

Define the term Rate.

Define the term Distortion.

Define the term Rate distortion.

What is the difference between scalar and vector quantization?

Explain binary symmetric channel.

Derive expression for discrete channel capacity?

What are the conditions to be satisfied by hamming codes?

Avg. information content per symbol is called --?

For long distance communication it is necessary to generate ---- signals to suit to transmission medium?

The information content is always a ------ quantity?

Explain information from Scientific point of View.

What is prefix?

Explain prefix code with the help of example

Derive Shannon’s channel capacity theorem

Give the significance of Shannon’s channel capacity theorem.

Write short note on: LZ coding

Consider the binary sequence: 101011010010011101010000110011101010001101.Using LZ coding Encode this sequence.

Consider the binary sequence: 10011101010000110011101010001101.Using LZ coding Encode this sequence if 1 and 0 are already in dictionary.

Write short note on: Scalar Quantization.

Explain the concept of vector Quantization with mathematical expression.

Consider the BSC with P(x1)=α as shown in fig. Show that mutual information is I(X,Y)=H(Y)+p log p+(1-p)log(1-p0

A zero memory source emits messages x1, x2,x3 with probabilities 0.9,0.02 and 0.08 resp. Find the optimum binary code for this source as well as for its 2ndOrder extension (i.e. N=2). Determine code efficiency in each case.

Explain distortion, Rate-Distortion R(D) and Distortion –rate D(R) functions.

Calculate the limiting value for a discrete memoryless Gaussian source

Interpret the following entropies H(X),H(Y),H(X|Y),H(Y|X)and H(XY)

A discrete memoryless source has an alphabet of seven symbols with probabilities 0.25,0.25,0.125,0.125,0.125,0.0625,0.0625 resp. Compute Huffman code for this source, calculate entropy, avg. codeword length & variance of this code.

Explain the source coding theorem.

A discrete memoryless source has an alphabet of seven symbols with probabilities 0.3,0.20,0.16,0.14,0.10,0.02,0.08 resp. Compute Huffman code for this source, calculate entropy, avg. codeword length & variance of this code.

Derive the expression for condition of maximum entropy.

A zero memory source emits messages x1, x2with probabilities 0.8,0.2 resp. Find the optimum binary code for this source as well as for its 2nd and 3rdOrder extension (i.e. N=2 & N=3). Determine code efficiency in each case.

A zero memory source emits messages x1, x2,x3 with probabilities 0.45,0.35 and 0.20 respectively. Find the optimum (Huffman) binary code for this source as well as for its 2ndOrder extension (i.e. N=2). Determine code efficiency in each case.

In ADPCM, give the types of adaptive quantizer.

In ADPCM, AQF required which three things.

Give the name of encoding techniques in frequency subband.

In subband coding, what is meant by quadrature mirror filter(QMF)?

What is use of adaptive transform coding(ATC)?

Define the term White Gaussian noise.

In LPC, what is the use of speech synthesizer?

Explain the term Image compression .

Explain the term data compression.

In Image compression ,explain lossless technique.

In Image compression ,explain lossy technique.

Define the term data redundancy.

Give the name of three types of data redundancy in image compression.

Define the term data compression.

Which two different data compression algorithms are used ?

Explain the meaning of JPEG.

Explain the Meaning of MPEG

Differentiate between subband coding & transform coding.

Differentiate between Lossy & Lossless compression.

Explain the concept of Quadrature mirror filter.

Discuss in detail image compression model

Explain JPEG standard for Image compression in detail.

Explain MPEG standard for Image compression in detail.

Explain adaptive sub-band coding methods

Write short notes on:- Linear predictive coding

Write short notes on:- ADPCM

Explain the LP coding with mathematical analysis

Explain CELP coding

Compare LP and CELP coding

Explain the advantages of MPEG coding

Explain transform coding methods

Give the model of digital communication system.

Give the concept of Basis Function in Digital communication.

What do you mean by Orthogonal Basis function?

What do you mean by Orthonormal Basis Function?

Explain the term optimum in digital communication.

Explain the term correlators.

What is the application of Gram –Schmidth orthogonalization procedure?

What is the meaning of signal space representation?

State optimum receiver Algorithm.

Spectral density of PSK, FSK & ASK can be improved using which factor?

Non – coherent scheme do not require a ----- local oscillator?

Band width required for ASK and PSK is same or not?

FSK signal can be demodulated using ---detector?

For each symbol 1 & 0 in PSK phase of carrier differs by --- degrees?

In ASK symbol 1 is represented by transmitting a --- wave?

Phase synchronization ensures these two waves in phase in the Ask receiver transmitter?

PSK transmission is polar or non polar?

PSK is liner or non-linear modulation scheme?

Explain the geometrical representation of signals.

Explain the vector space concept for signal space representation

Explain Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure with block diagram

Give the mathematical analysis for Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization.

Explain the concept of basis function

State the maximum likelihood criteria.

Explain signal representation of a signal N=2and M=3.

Give the condition for Orthogonality for basis function

Explain the signal space concept for representation of a signal.

Explain probability of errors in AWGN channel

Explain optimum receiver for AWGN channel

Write short note on QAM.

How many coding techniques are used for transmission the digital data?

Define Parity & Parity check code.

Define the term Hamming distance in coding.

What is meant by code efficiency ?

What are convolution codes?

Write about code tree and trellis diagram for convolution encoder.

Define the term Constraint length(K) in convolutional code.

Define the term Metric in Viterbi Algorithm.

Define the term Surviving path in Viterbi Algorithm

Define the term Metric Divergence effect in sequential decoding method.

What is meant by signal flow graph?

Define the term Free distance.

What is the meaning of distance transfer function?

Define the term Redundancy.

What do you mean by constellation?

Define the term mapping.

Give the relation between Euclidean distance and partition in trellis code modulation.

Explain the difference between convolution codes and block codes.

A rate 1/3 convolution code is described by; g1=[1 0 1], g2=[1 0 0],g3=[1 1 1]

Draw the encoder corresponding to this code

Draw code trellis diagram.

Draw state diagram for this code.

O/P of demodulator detector is (101001011110111),using viterbi algorithm, find surviving path.

Explain FANO metric

Explain FANO algorithm with the help of flowchart.

A rate 1/3 convolution code is described by; g1=[1 1 1], g2=[1 0 0],g3=[1 0 1]

Draw the encoder & code tree corresponding to this code.

What is constraint length of convolution code.

A rate 2/3 convolution code is described by; g1=[1 0 1 1, g2=[1 1 0 1], g3=[1 0 1 0] Draw the encoder ,code tree ,code trellis & state diagram corresponding to this code

A convolutional code is described by g1=[1 0 0], g2=[1 0 1],g3=[1 1 1] Find the advance transfer function and the free distance of this code

Write short note on Sequential decoding

Write short note on viterbi decoding

A rate 2/3 convolution code is described by; g1=[1 0 1 1, g2=[1 1 0 1], g3=[1 0 1 0] . O/P of demodulator detector is (01011111110111),using viterbi algorithm, find surviving path.

A convolutional code is described by g1=[1 0 1], g2=[1 0 0],g3=[1 1 1] Find the advance transfer function and the free distance of this code

Explain free distance & coding gain

Give advantages of convolution code

Explain trellis coded modulation

Explain set partitioning of 8PSK signal constellation.

Explain set partitioning of 16 QAM signal constellations.

Draw and explain undgerboeck modulation technique.

Draw trellis diagram for ungerboeck modulation.

Define spread spectrum modulation.

How spread spectrum is differ from FM/PCM?

What is the use of Spread spectrum technique in military ?

Define the term Averaging system in Spread spectrum.

Define the term Averaging system in Spread spectrum .

Give the name of types under spread spectrum techniques.

Define the term Pseudo noise sequence.

What is the difference between PN sequences and Maximum length sequence?

What is Processing Gain in DSSS?

What is Jamming margin in DSSS?

What do you mean by Frequency Hopping in Spread spectrum?

What do you mean by Fast Frequency Hopping in Spread spectrum?

What do you mean by Slow Frequency Hopping in Spread spectrum?

Define the term chip rate, chip duration in PN sequence.

What is the meaning of Interference rejection?

Explain the term Antijam capability.

Explain the term multipath protection.

Explain balance property of PN sequence.

Explain run property of PN sequence.

Explain auto correlation property of PN sequence

What is spread spectrum?

Define processing gain & jamming margin

List the applications of spread spectrum system

Explain the applications of DS-SS signals.

Explain DS-SS system with coherent BPSK.

Give expression for Probability of error and derive the expression for jamming margin for DSSS system.

Explain balance property of PN sequence

Explain run property of PN sequence

Explain auto correlation property of PN sequence

Tabulate and plot autocorrelation function of all shift of an L=4 stage shift register Generator, generating a 15 bit (N=2L-1) maximal length PN sequence and verify its properties. Assume initial stage of shift register 1000

Write short notes on: - Slow Frequency Hopping

Write short notes on: - Fast Frequency Hopping

A recorded conversation is to be transmitted by PN spread spectrum. Assuming the spectrum of speech waveform is bandlimited to 3kHz.Fing chip rate required to obtain a PG of 20 db.

A slow FH/MFSK system has the following the following parameters. No. of bits MFSK symbol=4 No. of MKSK symbol /hop=4 Calculate PG.

Tabulate and plot autocorrelation function of all shift of an L=3 stage shift register Generator, generating a 7 bit (N=2L-1) maximal length PN sequence and verify its properties. Assume initial stage of shift register 100.

A slow FH/MFSK system has the following the following parameters. No. of bits MFSK symbol=4 No. of MKSK symbol /hop=5 Calculate PG.

A PN sequence is generated using a feedback shift of length m=4.The chip rate is 107chips /second. Find the following PN sequence length, chip duration.

Write short note on CDMA

A conversation is to be transmitted by PN spread spectrum. Assuming the spectrum of speech waveform is bandlimited to 4kHz.Fing chip rate required to obtain a PG of 20 db. Give that sequence length is grater than 5 hrs, find no. of shift register stages required.

**UNIT –I****Objective questions**Define the term Signals.

Define the term Systems.

Define the term Signal Space.

Define Bandpass signals and system.

Define Baseband signal &system.

Give the basic difference between Analog and Digital communication.

State Sampling Theorem.

What is impulse sampling, Natural sampling

Define Pulse code Modulation.

In what way PCM is different from other Modulation?

What is the meaning of Quantization?

Define uniform Quantization

Define nonuniform Quantization.

What is meant by Quantizing Noise?

How Delta modulation is different from PCM?

Which two noises are occurred in Delta modulation?

What is meant by coherent?

What is meant by non coherent?

Write the advantages and disadvantages of a digital communication system.

Explain the difference between baseband transmission and bandpass transmission.

**Subjective questions**Draw and explain the block diagram of Delta modulation

What are the different types of quantizer?

Explain the concept of companding.

Explain coherent binary PSK with the help of transmitter & receiver.

Explain coherent binary FSK with the help of transmitter & receiver.

Derive the expression for probability of error in coherent FSK

Explain the properties of matched filter.

Explain the concept of matched filter.

Derive the expression for probability of error in QPSK

Draw the signal space diagram for QPSK and find Euclidean distance.

Derive the expression for probability of error in coherent BPSK

Explain the difference between correlator and matched filter.

Draw the block diagram of DPSK system. Explain the working by means of suitable diagram

Write short note on QPSK.

Explain the PCM system.

Explain concept of Quantizing in PCM.

Explain concept of multiplexing in PCM.

Explain concept of repeaters in PCM.

Explain use of TDM in PCM

Give the expression for S to quantization noise ratio for PCM system. Hence prove that (S/N)dB =(4.8+6v)dB

Explain coherent MSK with the help of transmitter & receiver.

Derive the expression for probability of error in coherent MSK.

Draw the signal space diagram for MSK

Draw the waveforms related to MSK.

Derive the expression for probability of error in coherent QPSK

**UNIT –II**

Objective questionsObjective questions

Define the Information Theory.

Give the name of different types of Compact code.

Give the formula for entropy?

Explain discrete communication channel and its expression for information content?

Explain continues communication channel and its expression for information content.?

What is p (xi / yj)?

How will you write mutual information exchange?

Write expression for discrete channel capacity?

The formula for information measure is ---?

Define the term Rate.

Define the term Distortion.

Define the term Rate distortion.

What is the difference between scalar and vector quantization?

Explain binary symmetric channel.

Derive expression for discrete channel capacity?

What are the conditions to be satisfied by hamming codes?

Avg. information content per symbol is called --?

For long distance communication it is necessary to generate ---- signals to suit to transmission medium?

The information content is always a ------ quantity?

Explain information from Scientific point of View.

**Subjective questions**What is prefix?

Explain prefix code with the help of example

Derive Shannon’s channel capacity theorem

Give the significance of Shannon’s channel capacity theorem.

Write short note on: LZ coding

Consider the binary sequence: 101011010010011101010000110011101010001101.Using LZ coding Encode this sequence.

Consider the binary sequence: 10011101010000110011101010001101.Using LZ coding Encode this sequence if 1 and 0 are already in dictionary.

Write short note on: Scalar Quantization.

Explain the concept of vector Quantization with mathematical expression.

Consider the BSC with P(x1)=α as shown in fig. Show that mutual information is I(X,Y)=H(Y)+p log p+(1-p)log(1-p0

A zero memory source emits messages x1, x2,x3 with probabilities 0.9,0.02 and 0.08 resp. Find the optimum binary code for this source as well as for its 2ndOrder extension (i.e. N=2). Determine code efficiency in each case.

Explain distortion, Rate-Distortion R(D) and Distortion –rate D(R) functions.

Calculate the limiting value for a discrete memoryless Gaussian source

Interpret the following entropies H(X),H(Y),H(X|Y),H(Y|X)and H(XY)

A discrete memoryless source has an alphabet of seven symbols with probabilities 0.25,0.25,0.125,0.125,0.125,0.0625,0.0625 resp. Compute Huffman code for this source, calculate entropy, avg. codeword length & variance of this code.

Explain the source coding theorem.

A discrete memoryless source has an alphabet of seven symbols with probabilities 0.3,0.20,0.16,0.14,0.10,0.02,0.08 resp. Compute Huffman code for this source, calculate entropy, avg. codeword length & variance of this code.

Derive the expression for condition of maximum entropy.

A zero memory source emits messages x1, x2with probabilities 0.8,0.2 resp. Find the optimum binary code for this source as well as for its 2nd and 3rdOrder extension (i.e. N=2 & N=3). Determine code efficiency in each case.

A zero memory source emits messages x1, x2,x3 with probabilities 0.45,0.35 and 0.20 respectively. Find the optimum (Huffman) binary code for this source as well as for its 2ndOrder extension (i.e. N=2). Determine code efficiency in each case.

**UNIT –III****Objective questions**In ADPCM, give the types of adaptive quantizer.

In ADPCM, AQF required which three things.

Give the name of encoding techniques in frequency subband.

In subband coding, what is meant by quadrature mirror filter(QMF)?

What is use of adaptive transform coding(ATC)?

Define the term White Gaussian noise.

In LPC, what is the use of speech synthesizer?

Explain the term Image compression .

Explain the term data compression.

In Image compression ,explain lossless technique.

In Image compression ,explain lossy technique.

Define the term data redundancy.

Give the name of three types of data redundancy in image compression.

Define the term data compression.

Which two different data compression algorithms are used ?

Explain the meaning of JPEG.

Explain the Meaning of MPEG

Differentiate between subband coding & transform coding.

Differentiate between Lossy & Lossless compression.

Explain the concept of Quadrature mirror filter.

Subjective questionsSubjective questions

Discuss in detail image compression model

Explain JPEG standard for Image compression in detail.

Explain MPEG standard for Image compression in detail.

Explain adaptive sub-band coding methods

Write short notes on:- Linear predictive coding

Write short notes on:- ADPCM

Explain the LP coding with mathematical analysis

Explain CELP coding

Compare LP and CELP coding

Explain the advantages of MPEG coding

Explain transform coding methods

Give the model of digital communication system.

**UNIT –IV**

Objective questionsObjective questions

Give the concept of Basis Function in Digital communication.

What do you mean by Orthogonal Basis function?

What do you mean by Orthonormal Basis Function?

Explain the term optimum in digital communication.

Explain the term correlators.

What is the application of Gram –Schmidth orthogonalization procedure?

What is the meaning of signal space representation?

State optimum receiver Algorithm.

Spectral density of PSK, FSK & ASK can be improved using which factor?

Non – coherent scheme do not require a ----- local oscillator?

Band width required for ASK and PSK is same or not?

FSK signal can be demodulated using ---detector?

For each symbol 1 & 0 in PSK phase of carrier differs by --- degrees?

In ASK symbol 1 is represented by transmitting a --- wave?

Phase synchronization ensures these two waves in phase in the Ask receiver transmitter?

PSK transmission is polar or non polar?

PSK is liner or non-linear modulation scheme?

**Subjective questions**Explain the geometrical representation of signals.

Explain the vector space concept for signal space representation

Explain Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure with block diagram

Give the mathematical analysis for Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization.

Explain the concept of basis function

State the maximum likelihood criteria.

Explain signal representation of a signal N=2and M=3.

Give the condition for Orthogonality for basis function

Explain the signal space concept for representation of a signal.

Explain probability of errors in AWGN channel

Explain optimum receiver for AWGN channel

Write short note on QAM.

**UNIT –V**

Objective questionsObjective questions

How many coding techniques are used for transmission the digital data?

Define Parity & Parity check code.

Define the term Hamming distance in coding.

What is meant by code efficiency ?

What are convolution codes?

Write about code tree and trellis diagram for convolution encoder.

Define the term Constraint length(K) in convolutional code.

Define the term Metric in Viterbi Algorithm.

Define the term Surviving path in Viterbi Algorithm

Define the term Metric Divergence effect in sequential decoding method.

What is meant by signal flow graph?

Define the term Free distance.

What is the meaning of distance transfer function?

Define the term Redundancy.

What do you mean by constellation?

Define the term mapping.

Give the relation between Euclidean distance and partition in trellis code modulation.

Subjective questionsSubjective questions

Explain the difference between convolution codes and block codes.

A rate 1/3 convolution code is described by; g1=[1 0 1], g2=[1 0 0],g3=[1 1 1]

Draw the encoder corresponding to this code

Draw code trellis diagram.

Draw state diagram for this code.

O/P of demodulator detector is (101001011110111),using viterbi algorithm, find surviving path.

Explain FANO metric

Explain FANO algorithm with the help of flowchart.

A rate 1/3 convolution code is described by; g1=[1 1 1], g2=[1 0 0],g3=[1 0 1]

Draw the encoder & code tree corresponding to this code.

What is constraint length of convolution code.

A rate 2/3 convolution code is described by; g1=[1 0 1 1, g2=[1 1 0 1], g3=[1 0 1 0] Draw the encoder ,code tree ,code trellis & state diagram corresponding to this code

A convolutional code is described by g1=[1 0 0], g2=[1 0 1],g3=[1 1 1] Find the advance transfer function and the free distance of this code

Write short note on Sequential decoding

Write short note on viterbi decoding

A rate 2/3 convolution code is described by; g1=[1 0 1 1, g2=[1 1 0 1], g3=[1 0 1 0] . O/P of demodulator detector is (01011111110111),using viterbi algorithm, find surviving path.

A convolutional code is described by g1=[1 0 1], g2=[1 0 0],g3=[1 1 1] Find the advance transfer function and the free distance of this code

Explain free distance & coding gain

Give advantages of convolution code

Explain trellis coded modulation

Explain set partitioning of 8PSK signal constellation.

Explain set partitioning of 16 QAM signal constellations.

Draw and explain undgerboeck modulation technique.

Draw trellis diagram for ungerboeck modulation.

**UNIT –VI**

Objective questionsObjective questions

Define spread spectrum modulation.

How spread spectrum is differ from FM/PCM?

What is the use of Spread spectrum technique in military ?

Define the term Averaging system in Spread spectrum.

Define the term Averaging system in Spread spectrum .

Give the name of types under spread spectrum techniques.

Define the term Pseudo noise sequence.

What is the difference between PN sequences and Maximum length sequence?

What is Processing Gain in DSSS?

What is Jamming margin in DSSS?

What do you mean by Frequency Hopping in Spread spectrum?

What do you mean by Fast Frequency Hopping in Spread spectrum?

What do you mean by Slow Frequency Hopping in Spread spectrum?

Define the term chip rate, chip duration in PN sequence.

What is the meaning of Interference rejection?

Explain the term Antijam capability.

Explain the term multipath protection.

Explain balance property of PN sequence.

Explain run property of PN sequence.

Explain auto correlation property of PN sequence

**Subjective questions**What is spread spectrum?

Define processing gain & jamming margin

List the applications of spread spectrum system

Explain the applications of DS-SS signals.

Explain DS-SS system with coherent BPSK.

Give expression for Probability of error and derive the expression for jamming margin for DSSS system.

Explain balance property of PN sequence

Explain run property of PN sequence

Explain auto correlation property of PN sequence

Tabulate and plot autocorrelation function of all shift of an L=4 stage shift register Generator, generating a 15 bit (N=2L-1) maximal length PN sequence and verify its properties. Assume initial stage of shift register 1000

Write short notes on: - Slow Frequency Hopping

Write short notes on: - Fast Frequency Hopping

A recorded conversation is to be transmitted by PN spread spectrum. Assuming the spectrum of speech waveform is bandlimited to 3kHz.Fing chip rate required to obtain a PG of 20 db.

A slow FH/MFSK system has the following the following parameters. No. of bits MFSK symbol=4 No. of MKSK symbol /hop=4 Calculate PG.

Tabulate and plot autocorrelation function of all shift of an L=3 stage shift register Generator, generating a 7 bit (N=2L-1) maximal length PN sequence and verify its properties. Assume initial stage of shift register 100.

A slow FH/MFSK system has the following the following parameters. No. of bits MFSK symbol=4 No. of MKSK symbol /hop=5 Calculate PG.

A PN sequence is generated using a feedback shift of length m=4.The chip rate is 107chips /second. Find the following PN sequence length, chip duration.

Write short note on CDMA

A conversation is to be transmitted by PN spread spectrum. Assuming the spectrum of speech waveform is bandlimited to 4kHz.Fing chip rate required to obtain a PG of 20 db. Give that sequence length is grater than 5 hrs, find no. of shift register stages required.

@BCA_GIRL • 06 Nov, 2010
Subject - Internet and web browsing.

Unit-I

1. a) What is protocol? Explain the different types of protocols in e-mail services.

b) Describe the various parts of e-mail address and show the process of sending and receiving e-mails.

2. a) How many types of Internet connections are? Write short note on basic services available through the Internet.

b) What is ISP? What services they provide us? Also explain POP/ Mailing List? Addressing.

Unit-II

3. a) Explain about www and write some main features of www.

b) What do you understand by web browser?Explain the working of a web browser.

4. Write short note on FTP/URL/Search Engine/HTTP.

Unit-III

5. a) Write down basic elements of HTML. Explain with suitable example.

b) What is hyperlink?Create a HTML page include the images effect.

6. a) Explain the procedure to develop a web site and how to publish our website in the Internet.

b) List any five formatting HTML tags and explain their use.

Unit-IV

7. What is Frame?Explain with example.

8. a) What are Style Sheets?Describe the elements of style sheets.

b) Describe Embedded style sheet/Inline style sheets.

Unit-V

9. What is E-Business?What are application and advantages of E-Commerce?

10. Differentiate between electronic and other forms of commerce.

Unit-I

1. a) What is protocol? Explain the different types of protocols in e-mail services.

b) Describe the various parts of e-mail address and show the process of sending and receiving e-mails.

2. a) How many types of Internet connections are? Write short note on basic services available through the Internet.

b) What is ISP? What services they provide us? Also explain POP/ Mailing List? Addressing.

Unit-II

3. a) Explain about www and write some main features of www.

b) What do you understand by web browser?Explain the working of a web browser.

4. Write short note on FTP/URL/Search Engine/HTTP.

Unit-III

5. a) Write down basic elements of HTML. Explain with suitable example.

b) What is hyperlink?Create a HTML page include the images effect.

6. a) Explain the procedure to develop a web site and how to publish our website in the Internet.

b) List any five formatting HTML tags and explain their use.

Unit-IV

7. What is Frame?Explain with example.

8. a) What are Style Sheets?Describe the elements of style sheets.

b) Describe Embedded style sheet/Inline style sheets.

Unit-V

9. What is E-Business?What are application and advantages of E-Commerce?

10. Differentiate between electronic and other forms of commerce.

@BCA_GIRL • 06 Nov, 2010
Subject: Fundamental of Internet & Web browsing

1. a) Explain the working of DSN.

b) Why the class C is most commonly used Network class?

c) Name the various organizations responsible for governing various activities on Internet.

d) Who is ISP? What factors effect choosing an ISP?

2. a) How the top level domains are organized?

b) TCP/IP is Internet Communication Protocol.How?

c) Write the name of various types of Internet Connections available in market.

d) Why Internet is called Packet Switched Network?

3. a) What is Intranet? Explain its applications in detail.

b) Internet and WWW both are same. If yes/no, give your comments.

c) Describe the working of Search Engine.

4. a) Write a short note on

i) FTP

ii) Web Server

iii) HTTP

iv) E-Mail Spamming

v) Portals

1. a) Explain the working of DSN.

b) Why the class C is most commonly used Network class?

c) Name the various organizations responsible for governing various activities on Internet.

d) Who is ISP? What factors effect choosing an ISP?

2. a) How the top level domains are organized?

b) TCP/IP is Internet Communication Protocol.How?

c) Write the name of various types of Internet Connections available in market.

d) Why Internet is called Packet Switched Network?

3. a) What is Intranet? Explain its applications in detail.

b) Internet and WWW both are same. If yes/no, give your comments.

c) Describe the working of Search Engine.

4. a) Write a short note on

i) FTP

ii) Web Server

iii) HTTP

iv) E-Mail Spamming

v) Portals

@sushant005 • 06 Nov, 2010
@AKD and BCA_GIRL : wow.....nice collection of questions and it almost covers all the syllabus of networking.....

@whiz.kid.aniket • 06 Nov, 2010
Good collection of questions!

@mywbut • 13 Nov, 2010
These are questions for what ?

AbraKaDabraMore Questions: Unit Wise

UNIT –I

Objective questions

Define the term Signals.

Define the term Systems.

Define the term Signal Space.

Define Bandpass signals and system.

Define Baseband signal &system.

Give the basic difference between Analog and Digital communication.

State Sampling Theorem.

What is impulse sampling, Natural sampling

Define Pulse code Modulation.

In what way PCM is different from other Modulation?

What is the meaning of Quantization?

Define uniform Quantization

Define nonuniform Quantization.

What is meant by Quantizing Noise?

How Delta modulation is different from PCM?

Which two noises are occurred in Delta modulation?

What is meant by coherent?

What is meant by non coherent?

Write the advantages and disadvantages of a digital communication system.

Explain the difference between baseband transmission and bandpass transmission.

Subjective questions

Draw and explain the block diagram of Delta modulation

What are the different types of quantizer?

Explain the concept of companding.

Explain coherent binary PSK with the help of transmitter & receiver.

Explain coherent binary FSK with the help of transmitter & receiver.

Derive the expression for probability of error in coherent FSK

Explain the properties of matched filter.

Explain the concept of matched filter.

Derive the expression for probability of error in QPSK

Draw the signal space diagram for QPSK and find Euclidean distance.

Derive the expression for probability of error in coherent BPSK

Explain the difference between correlator and matched filter.

Draw the block diagram of DPSK system. Explain the working by means of suitable diagram

Write short note on QPSK.

Explain the PCM system.

Explain concept of Quantizing in PCM.

Explain concept of multiplexing in PCM.

Explain concept of repeaters in PCM.

Explain use of TDM in PCM

Give the expression for S to quantization noise ratio for PCM system. Hence prove that (S/N)dB =(4.8+6v)dB

Explain coherent MSK with the help of transmitter & receiver.

Derive the expression for probability of error in coherent MSK.

Draw the signal space diagram for MSK

Draw the waveforms related to MSK.

Derive the expression for probability of error in coherent QPSK

UNIT –II

Objective questions

Define the Information Theory.

Give the name of different types of Compact code.

Give the formula for entropy?

Explain discrete communication channel and its expression for information content?

Explain continues communication channel and its expression for information content.?

What is p (xi / yj)?

How will you write mutual information exchange?

Write expression for discrete channel capacity?

The formula for information measure is ---?

Define the term Rate.

Define the term Distortion.

Define the term Rate distortion.

What is the difference between scalar and vector quantization?

Explain binary symmetric channel.

Derive expression for discrete channel capacity?

What are the conditions to be satisfied by hamming codes?

Avg. information content per symbol is called --?

For long distance communication it is necessary to generate ---- signals to suit to transmission medium?

The information content is always a ------ quantity?

Explain information from Scientific point of View.

Subjective questions

What is prefix?

Explain prefix code with the help of example

Derive Shannon’s channel capacity theorem

Give the significance of Shannon’s channel capacity theorem.

Write short note on: LZ coding

Consider the binary sequence: 101011010010011101010000110011101010001101.Using LZ coding Encode this sequence.

Consider the binary sequence: 10011101010000110011101010001101.Using LZ coding Encode this sequence if 1 and 0 are already in dictionary.

Write short note on: Scalar Quantization.

Explain the concept of vector Quantization with mathematical expression.

Consider the BSC with P(x1)=α as shown in fig. Show that mutual information is I(X,Y)=H(Y)+p log p+(1-p)log(1-p0

A zero memory source emits messages x1, x2,x3 with probabilities 0.9,0.02 and 0.08 resp. Find the optimum binary code for this source as well as for its 2ndOrder extension (i.e. N=2). Determine code efficiency in each case.

Explain distortion, Rate-Distortion R(D) and Distortion –rate D(R) functions.

Calculate the limiting value for a discrete memoryless Gaussian source

Interpret the following entropies H(X),H(Y),H(X|Y),H(Y|X)and H(XY)

A discrete memoryless source has an alphabet of seven symbols with probabilities 0.25,0.25,0.125,0.125,0.125,0.0625,0.0625 resp. Compute Huffman code for this source, calculate entropy, avg. codeword length & variance of this code.

Explain the source coding theorem.

A discrete memoryless source has an alphabet of seven symbols with probabilities 0.3,0.20,0.16,0.14,0.10,0.02,0.08 resp. Compute Huffman code for this source, calculate entropy, avg. codeword length & variance of this code.

Derive the expression for condition of maximum entropy.

A zero memory source emits messages x1, x2with probabilities 0.8,0.2 resp. Find the optimum binary code for this source as well as for its 2nd and 3rdOrder extension (i.e. N=2 & N=3). Determine code efficiency in each case.

A zero memory source emits messages x1, x2,x3 with probabilities 0.45,0.35 and 0.20 respectively. Find the optimum (Huffman) binary code for this source as well as for its 2ndOrder extension (i.e. N=2). Determine code efficiency in each case.

UNIT –III

Objective questions

In ADPCM, give the types of adaptive quantizer.

In ADPCM, AQF required which three things.

Give the name of encoding techniques in frequency subband.

In subband coding, what is meant by quadrature mirror filter(QMF)?

What is use of adaptive transform coding(ATC)?

Define the term White Gaussian noise.

In LPC, what is the use of speech synthesizer?

Explain the term Image compression .

Explain the term data compression.

In Image compression ,explain lossless technique.

In Image compression ,explain lossy technique.

Define the term data redundancy.

Give the name of three types of data redundancy in image compression.

Define the term data compression.

Which two different data compression algorithms are used ?

Explain the meaning of JPEG.

Explain the Meaning of MPEG

Differentiate between subband coding & transform coding.

Differentiate between Lossy & Lossless compression.

Explain the concept of Quadrature mirror filter.

Subjective questions

Discuss in detail image compression model

Explain JPEG standard for Image compression in detail.

Explain MPEG standard for Image compression in detail.

Explain adaptive sub-band coding methods

Write short notes on:- Linear predictive coding

Write short notes on:- ADPCM

Explain the LP coding with mathematical analysis

Explain CELP coding

Compare LP and CELP coding

Explain the advantages of MPEG coding

Explain transform coding methods

Give the model of digital communication system.

UNIT –IV

Objective questions

Give the concept of Basis Function in Digital communication.

What do you mean by Orthogonal Basis function?

What do you mean by Orthonormal Basis Function?

Explain the term optimum in digital communication.

Explain the term correlators.

What is the application of Gram –Schmidth orthogonalization procedure?

What is the meaning of signal space representation?

State optimum receiver Algorithm.

Spectral density of PSK, FSK & ASK can be improved using which factor?

Non – coherent scheme do not require a ----- local oscillator?

Band width required for ASK and PSK is same or not?

FSK signal can be demodulated using ---detector?

For each symbol 1 & 0 in PSK phase of carrier differs by --- degrees?

In ASK symbol 1 is represented by transmitting a --- wave?

Phase synchronization ensures these two waves in phase in the Ask receiver transmitter?

PSK transmission is polar or non polar?

PSK is liner or non-linear modulation scheme?

Subjective questions

Explain the geometrical representation of signals.

Explain the vector space concept for signal space representation

Explain Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure with block diagram

Give the mathematical analysis for Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization.

Explain the concept of basis function

State the maximum likelihood criteria.

Explain signal representation of a signal N=2and M=3.

Give the condition for Orthogonality for basis function

Explain the signal space concept for representation of a signal.

Explain probability of errors in AWGN channel

Explain optimum receiver for AWGN channel

Write short note on QAM.

UNIT –V

Objective questions

How many coding techniques are used for transmission the digital data?

Define Parity & Parity check code.

Define the term Hamming distance in coding.

What is meant by code efficiency ?

What are convolution codes?

Write about code tree and trellis diagram for convolution encoder.

Define the term Constraint length(K) in convolutional code.

Define the term Metric in Viterbi Algorithm.

Define the term Surviving path in Viterbi Algorithm

Define the term Metric Divergence effect in sequential decoding method.

What is meant by signal flow graph?

Define the term Free distance.

What is the meaning of distance transfer function?

Define the term Redundancy.

What do you mean by constellation?

Define the term mapping.

Give the relation between Euclidean distance and partition in trellis code modulation.

Subjective questions

Explain the difference between convolution codes and block codes.

A rate 1/3 convolution code is described by; g1=[1 0 1], g2=[1 0 0],g3=[1 1 1]

Draw the encoder corresponding to this code

Draw code trellis diagram.

Draw state diagram for this code.

O/P of demodulator detector is (101001011110111),using viterbi algorithm, find surviving path.

Explain FANO metric

Explain FANO algorithm with the help of flowchart.

A rate 1/3 convolution code is described by; g1=[1 1 1], g2=[1 0 0],g3=[1 0 1]

Draw the encoder & code tree corresponding to this code.

What is constraint length of convolution code.

A rate 2/3 convolution code is described by; g1=[1 0 1 1, g2=[1 1 0 1], g3=[1 0 1 0] Draw the encoder ,code tree ,code trellis & state diagram corresponding to this code

A convolutional code is described by g1=[1 0 0], g2=[1 0 1],g3=[1 1 1] Find the advance transfer function and the free distance of this code

Write short note on Sequential decoding

Write short note on viterbi decoding

A rate 2/3 convolution code is described by; g1=[1 0 1 1, g2=[1 1 0 1], g3=[1 0 1 0] . O/P of demodulator detector is (01011111110111),using viterbi algorithm, find surviving path.

A convolutional code is described by g1=[1 0 1], g2=[1 0 0],g3=[1 1 1] Find the advance transfer function and the free distance of this code

Explain free distance & coding gain

Give advantages of convolution code

Explain trellis coded modulation

Explain set partitioning of 8PSK signal constellation.

Explain set partitioning of 16 QAM signal constellations.

Draw and explain undgerboeck modulation technique.

Draw trellis diagram for ungerboeck modulation.

UNIT –VI

Objective questions

Define spread spectrum modulation.

How spread spectrum is differ from FM/PCM?

What is the use of Spread spectrum technique in military ?

Define the term Averaging system in Spread spectrum.

Define the term Averaging system in Spread spectrum .

Give the name of types under spread spectrum techniques.

Define the term Pseudo noise sequence.

What is the difference between PN sequences and Maximum length sequence?

What is Processing Gain in DSSS?

What is Jamming margin in DSSS?

What do you mean by Frequency Hopping in Spread spectrum?

What do you mean by Fast Frequency Hopping in Spread spectrum?

What do you mean by Slow Frequency Hopping in Spread spectrum?

Define the term chip rate, chip duration in PN sequence.

What is the meaning of Interference rejection?

Explain the term Antijam capability.

Explain the term multipath protection.

Explain balance property of PN sequence.

Explain run property of PN sequence.

Explain auto correlation property of PN sequence

Subjective questions

What is spread spectrum?

Define processing gain & jamming margin

List the applications of spread spectrum system

Explain the applications of DS-SS signals.

Explain DS-SS system with coherent BPSK.

Give expression for Probability of error and derive the expression for jamming margin for DSSS system.

Explain balance property of PN sequence

Explain run property of PN sequence

Explain auto correlation property of PN sequence

Tabulate and plot autocorrelation function of all shift of an L=4 stage shift register Generator, generating a 15 bit (N=2L-1) maximal length PN sequence and verify its properties. Assume initial stage of shift register 1000

Write short notes on: - Slow Frequency Hopping

Write short notes on: - Fast Frequency Hopping

A recorded conversation is to be transmitted by PN spread spectrum. Assuming the spectrum of speech waveform is bandlimited to 3kHz.Fing chip rate required to obtain a PG of 20 db.

A slow FH/MFSK system has the following the following parameters. No. of bits MFSK symbol=4 No. of MKSK symbol /hop=4 Calculate PG.

Tabulate and plot autocorrelation function of all shift of an L=3 stage shift register Generator, generating a 7 bit (N=2L-1) maximal length PN sequence and verify its properties. Assume initial stage of shift register 100.

A slow FH/MFSK system has the following the following parameters. No. of bits MFSK symbol=4 No. of MKSK symbol /hop=5 Calculate PG.

A PN sequence is generated using a feedback shift of length m=4.The chip rate is 107chips /second. Find the following PN sequence length, chip duration.

Write short note on CDMA

A conversation is to be transmitted by PN spread spectrum. Assuming the spectrum of speech waveform is bandlimited to 4kHz.Fing chip rate required to obtain a PG of 20 db. Give that sequence length is grater than 5 hrs, find no. of shift register stages required.

@4M4N • 14 Nov, 2010
nice collection

@think • 14 Nov, 2010
Excellent job AKD!!

@Ankita Katdare • 13 Jul, 2011
Please add more questions to this question bank. We can compile a PDF of those and keep it for download.

@rajramesh_1429 • 11 Sep, 2011
Nice collection. Is there any possibility to get answers through online cause I am unable to find right topics for some questions or please suggest me which type of books need to follow i have JNTU books but no use. I done with 4 years of course but didn't complete even 1 exam also. Please suggest me to follow books for all subjects I am 06 batch.

my mail ID: rajramesh_14292@rediffmail.com

my mail ID: rajramesh_14292@rediffmail.com

AbraKaDabraFollowing are the repeatedly asked Questions:

Explain the different computer network functions.

What are the differences between packet switching and circuit switching?

Explain the OSI reference model with diagram.

Compare the OSI and TCP/IP models. Explain the difference between them.

Write a short note on

1)HTTP

2) SMTP

3) FTP

What are the advantages of digital communication over analog communication.

Explain the differences between block oriented and stream oriented information.

Explain the TCP/IP reference model with diagram.

What is a line coding? What are advantages?

Line code the bit stream 110101 using six different methods.

Suppose it is desired to transmit at a rate of 64Kbps over 3KHz telephone channel. What is the minimum SNR in dB?

Explain the different types of characterization of communication channels.

Write a short note on

i) Analog repeater

ii) Attenuation

iii) Shannon Channel Capacity.

Explain the PSK, ASK, FSK modulation and demodulation wave forms.

Briefly explain the coaxial cable , optical fiber, twisted pair and its applications.

Generate CRC code for the data word 110101010 using the divisor 10101.

Explain time space time switches.

Explain FDM, TDM and QAM with examples.

What is a draw back of Go Back-n protocol? How it is overcome in the selective repeat protocol.

Drive the efficiency of stop and wait protocol.

Give the HDLC frame format and explain the bit stuffing scheme is used. Also give the control field format of the different types of frames used.

What is multiplexing ? Explain TDM. How is the frequency of a multiplexer determined.

What is SONET? Explain the SONET layer and the frame structure.

@mqe • 18 May, 2017
Has anyone know, what is low density parify check codes(LDPC)??

@Morgan Fowler • 30 May, 2017
Is there any possibility to get answers through online cause I am unable to find right topics for some questions.

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