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How does one antenna tower transmit independent signals to multiple users?

Question asked by Rod Rozman in #Electrical #Electronics on Jun 4, 2021
Rod Rozman
Rod Rozman · Jun 4, 2021
Rank E2 - BEGINNER

I have a fixed wireless ISP at my house. The ISP's tower services dozens of homes in the surrounding area.

How does this single tower typically communicate with dozens of users? Is this single antenna omnidirectional? If so, how do they keep the different user's feeds separated?

Or are there separate directional transceivers on the ISP's main tower, each transceiver pointing at one house's transceiver?

Thx

Posted in: #Electrical #Electronics
[Prototype]
[Prototype] · Jun 7, 2021
Rank B1 - LEADER

Is the ISP utilizing LTE? 

If so it's an easy answer. What you've is something called as an small cell deployment. 

In cellular communication, the scheduling of both downlink and uplink is done by the base station. What it means is that, even if you want to upload something, you don't start transmitting indiscriminately. You'll need to wait for your slot which will be communicated by the base station. So, you see, how multiple people can be catered by same base station. The base station knows exactly when each of the user will transmit. :) 

Coming to the antenna, general deployments have multiple antennas pointed in multiple directions. With advent of mimo technology bringing in beamforming capabilities, you can focus the radio to a very specific user too. Though I doubt that's the deployment you have currently. It might be a usual deployment where simultaneous transmission in particular direction is not done due to potential interference. 

So simply speaking, the base station knows when each connected user will transmit or receive and it schedules these users in fixed time slots. 

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