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Electronics assembly discussion
A majority of the defects circuit-board assembly are caused due to issues in solder-paste printing process or due to defects in the solder paste. There are many different types of defects—too much solder, and the solder melts and connects to many wires (bridging), resulting in a short circuit. Insufficient amounts of paste result in incomplete circuits. Head-in-pillow defects, or incomplete coalescence of Ball grid array (BGA) sphere and solder paste deposit, is a failure mode that has seen increased frequency since the transition to lead-free soldering. Often missed during inspection, a head-in-pillow (HIP) defect appears like a small head resting on a pillow with a visible separation in the solder joint at the interface of the BGA sphere and paste deposit.